Updated 05 Nov. 2010
Backbone – Alternate term for Spine.
Background – All portions of an illustration that do not graphically describe the main subject or product.
Backing Liner – The compressible paper material, usually pulp or newsboard to which the facing liner is attached or adhered. This compressible paper material compensates for any irregularities on the sealing surface.
Backlash – Lost motion.
Back Liner – See “Bottom Liner.”
Back Printing – Printing on the underside of transparent paper or film. Alternative terms: reverse printing; second-surface printing.
Backslant – Any type that tilts to the left or backward direction; opposite of italic type.
BACT – see Best Available Control Technology.
Back Trimming – When all sides of a sheet of paper are cut with a blade’s back (nonbeveled) edge.
Backup – (1) The process of copying a file or program in the event the original is damaged, lost or unavailable. (2) To print on the second side of a sheet already printed on one side. (3) To adjust an image on one side of a sheet so that it aligns back-to-back with an image on the other side.
Back-up Blade – A blade that furnishes additional support to the primary doctor blade.
Baggy Roll – (Wrinkles) Refers to a non-uniform drawing web, where certain stack areas of the web are not under as much tension as the remaining areas.
Bag (vacuum) –
Bakelite – A trade name applied to synthetic resin. Its uses are similar to those of hard rubber and celluloid.
Balancing – The redistribution of mass to make it more evenly distributed throughout.
Bale – Solid, compressed stack of pulp or paper sheets
Ballard Shell – A thin skin of copper plated separately over the surface of a base cylinder. The base cylinder is ground and polished before treatment with one of several liquid parting agents, which prevent the copper layer from bonding directly to the base surface. The copper skin may be engraved and used for printing, after which it is easily stripped from the base cylinder; a new copper skin may be plated onto the base cylinder after the cylinder has been retreated with a parting agent.
Ball Corp –
Ball Packaging Europe (BPE) –
Bamboo Cylinders – Natural Containers. Bamboo grows wild all over most of Japan and it is deeply entwined with Japanese culture through food, clothing and shelter. Bamboo cylinders, which are created just by cutting through bamboo at its knots, are perfectly natural containers that do not require any additional processing. Bamboo cylinders can be thought of as one of the most primitive types of containers. During the Jomon Era in Japan, people were already using the bamboo cylinder as a container by putting water or fruit in it, or carrying it like a water bottle. (read also: Sugar Cane, Bamboo and Ceramics) source: The Cultural History of Packaging in Japan (Tetra Pak Japan)
Band – A strip of paper or board wrapped around the top, bottom, and sides or ends of a package or other object to cover them without being turned in.
Banding – (1) A visible breaking of shades in a gradient. (2) Method of packaging printed pieces of paper using rubber or paper bands.
Barcode – An array of parallel rectangular bars, arranged according to specific rules, to represent data in machine-readable form.
Barcode character – A group of bars and spaces within a bar code that represent a single letter, number or character.
Barcode density – The number of characters that are represented in a bar code per unit of length (characters per inch, cpi.).
Barcode reader – A device used to capture the data encoded within a bar code and convert it into computer compatible data or a human readable characters display.
Barcode symbol – The combination of characters required by a particular symbology that makes up a scan able entity.
Barrel Fold – Folding a sheet two or more times in the same direction.
Barrier – A sheet of paper used between the decorative layer and the kraft layer of a decorative laminate. Typically used to minimize phenolic bleed-through and increase opacity for whites, but may also provide alternative functions, e.g., electrical conductivity.
Barrier Coating – The coating applied to a substrate to make it resistant to the passage of moisture vapour, gases, water, or other liquids, including oils.
Barrier materials –
Base board – Board intended for coating, laminating, etc.
Base Cylinder – A gravure cylinder prior to copper plating.
Base Ink – A single-pigmented ink with high pigment-to-binder ratio, used in packaging applications for blending.
Base Metal – The material upon which coatings are deposited.
Base paper – Paper intended for further processing, e.g. by coating
Base Stock – Paper that will be further processed, as in coating.
Basic Size – The standard size of sheets of paper used to calculate basis weight in the United States and Canada.
Basis Weight – (1) In English system of units, basis weight is the weight in pounds of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to its basic size. Basic size differs from category to category of paper – basic size for paperboard is 24″x36″ and one ream equals 3,000 sq. ft. In the metric system, basis weight is the weight in grams of a single sheet of area one square meter and is called “grammage.” Basis weight is important in comparing products because a competitive product with a lower price per ton but a higher basis weight will yield less surface area and, therefore, may not be a better buy. (2) The specification of boxboard as density of weight per unit area. In the U.S., it is measured as “pounds per thousand square feet” and in Europe, as “grams per square meter” (gsm). It ranges from a light weight of 60 pounds per thousand square feet to as heavy as 200 pounds per thousand square feet in a single ply; however, any one machine is ordinarily not capable of making this complete range.
Batch code – Combination of characters that facilitates tracing of the product to the batch in which it was processed (see LOT).
Bath Voltage – The total voltage between the anode and cathode of an electrolytic cell during electrolysis. It is equal to the sum of (a) equilibrium reaction potential, (b) I R drop, and (c) electrode polarizations.
BC- Flute – This flute is a double-wall combination made from one B-flute, single-wall sheet and one C-flute, single-wall sheet. The result is a strong corrugation used when extra thickness or stacking strength is needed.
BCP Fluted Packaging –
Beamish “Floating Widget” –
Beater – A large mixer in which stock is prepared. The fibres are mechanically treated in the beater while additional ingredients are mixed in.
Beating – Mechanical treatment of fibres to improve fibre bonding
Beer (alu bottle) –
Beer (bag-in-box) –
Beer (glass bottle) –
Beer (case pack) –
beer (keg) –
Beer-Lambert’s Law – A law which states that the amount of light absorbed by a body is proportional to the amount of absorbing particles in it. This means that it will be proportional to the concentration of that additive multiplied by the thickness of that body (the path length of the light through the body).
Bemis Clysar –
Bemis Clysar ShrinkBox – (TM)
Benchmark – A standard set by the best existing practice, product, or service. A standard by which something can be measured or judged. Benchmarking is the process of comparing performance against that of others in an effort to identify areas for improvement.
Ben Day – A shadowing effect in printing derived from engravings made by a mechanical shading machine.
Bending Board – A descriptive term applied to any boxboard which, when properly scored, will sustain a single fold through 180 degrees without breaking the outer fibres or separating the plies.
Bending Chipboard – The least expensive grade of boxboard used in the manufacture of folding cartons, composed principally of recycled fibre.
Bericap – A globally acting manufacturer of plastic closures with 20 factories in 18 countries across the world, on-going projects in several countries of Asia and a network of licensees and partners to supply similar products made according to the same quality and service standards to its global customers; with a mould shop in Hungary and several satellite R&D offices in its main operations, Bericap is particularly committed to development and innovation in plastic closures for its customers. (from company website: http://www.bericap.com)
Best Available Control Technology (BACT) – An emission limitation based on the maximum degree of emission reduction (considering energy, environmental, and economic impacts) achievable through application of production processes and available methods, systems, and techniques. BACT does not permit emissions in excess of those allowed under any applicable Clean Air Act provisions. Use of the BACT concept is allowable on a case by case basis for major new or modified emissions sources in attainment areas and applies to each regulated pollutant. (http://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms/dterms.html, ASTM Test Method 6866)
Bevel – Angle-ground, honed, or filed-on edge of doctor blade.
Beverages bottles – Containers of varying sizes each with its characteristic appearance, i. e. a cylindrical package which narrows at its top to form an orifice from which the beverage can be drunk or poured, wherewith the orifice can be re-sealed with the aid of a screw-threaded cork or screw cap. The bottles are normally made of plastic (PET) or glass.
Beverage can –
Beverage carrier –
B-Flute – Flute thickness of 2.5 mm. Has good puncture resistance.
Bi-axial Orientation – Orientation of plastic films in both machine and cross machine directions by stretching. Properties of bi-axially stretched films are generally well balanced in both directions.
BiB – Bag-in-Box
Bicarbonate-Acid – A white endothermic foaming agent with the widest application capabilities. This chemistry provides small cell structure and smoother part surfaces.
Billboard – (1) Term used to describe the front or face panel of a carton as it sits in the display rack. (2) The pop-up display panel of the typical counter display. (See Plate 4.201.)
Bimetal Plate – A lithographic plate used for long runs. The printing image basis is copper or brass while the non-printing area is aluminium, stainless steel, or chromium.
Bind – Usually in the book arena, but not exclusively, the joining of leafs or signatures together with either wire, glue or other means.
Binder – The adhesive component(s) of an ink, normally supplied by the resin formulation.
Binders – (1) The materials used to provide cohesive strength to coatings based on clays and calcium carbonate. The binder would be used as a polymer dispersion, for example, polyvinyl acetate. (2) Paper additives which bond paper fibres together, increasing hardness and stiffness of the paper, and reducing tinting, picking, and dust. Typical binders are starch, gums, and methylcellulose.
Bindery – A department within a printing company responsible for collating, folding, and trimming various printing projects.
Binding – The process of attaching loose sheets of paper into a book or other multi-page document.
Bio-active paper – Any low-cost and easy-to-use paper product laced with biologically active chemicals that provides a rapid, portable, disposable and inexpensive way to detect – and in some cases deactivate – toxins like E. coli bacteria and salmonella, or pathogens such as SARS or influenza. Applications for bioactive paper range from food packaging and hospital masks to paper strips for detecting and purifying unsafe drinking water or checking for banned pesticides in crop produce.
Bio-based Material – A bio-based material or “biomaterial” is any material made from renewable plant matter (as opposed to non-renewable prehistoric plant material, fossil fuels), including agricultural crops and residues, and trees. Sustainable biomaterials are those that are (1) sourced from sustainably grown and harvested cropland or forests, (2) manufactured without hazardous inputs and impacts, (3) healthy and safe for the environment during use, and (4) designed to be re-utilized at the end of their intended use such as via recycling or composting. (http://www.cleanproduction.org/Steps.BioSociety.Biobased.php)
Bio burden – Population of viable micro-organisms on an item (ref. ISO 11607 -2003(E)).
Bio-capacity – An aggregate measure that represents a biosphere’s ability to provide ecological services. The ability of terrestrial and aquatic areas to produce crops, livestock, timber products and fish, as well as to uptake carbon dioxide in forests is considered. Infrastructure (built-up land) is considered when evaluating a biosphere’s regenerative capacity.
Bio-degradable – The ability of a substance to be broken down physically and/or chemically by micro-organisms. Capable of decomposing rapidly by micro-organisms under natural conditions (aerobic and/or anaerobic). This degradation produces water, carbon dioxide and/or methane and in some cases residues non-toxic to the environment. Specific test methods can be applied to determine biodegradability. ASTM Test Method 6400/6868. Many chemicals, food scraps, cotton, wool and paper are biodegradable; plastics and polyester generally are not.
Bio-degradable materials –
Bio-degradable packaging –
Biodegradable plastics and Recycling – Biodegradable plastics (a.k.a as bio-plastics) cover a range of materials, from familiar polyethylenes and polypropylenes, with small amounts of additives that cause them to break down much faster, to more exotic plant-based compostable polymers that micro-organisms can eat. Biodegradable packaging enters the waste stream where it is causing major problems in some long-life products using recycled plastics such as pipes, builders’ sheeting, agricultural sheeting and the like – with possible market loss to the recycling industry. The failure is essentially caused by the degradation process breaking down the molecular structure of the plastic.
Notes about biodegradability of plastic packaging in relation to recycling:
1. The last thing a recycler wants is biodegradable material entering the mix and potentially destabilising the resin that’s going into new products.
2. Introducing biodegradable plastics makes sorting more complex and prone to error, whether by residents or by the recyclers.
3. Industrial composting operations either screen out plastics at the start of the process, or are too efficient for the biodegradable packaging to decompose completely, so it ends up as trash, anyway.
4. Even if oil prices rise, the post-consumer polyethylene film from all the plastic bags and other packaging will be unsalable if the material has biodegradable contaminants.
5. Biodegradable products, often touted for breaking down in landfill, won’t degrade in a modern dump for years. Decomposition will produce methane emissions, worse than carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas, and potentially affect soil and water conditions. According to the Biodegradable Products Institute, landfill researchers have uncovered ‘legible 3D-year old newspapers, five year-old lettuce and 10-year-old hot dogs.’
For many a company it is often not more than a marketing allure of an eco-friendly label.
Biodegradable Products Institute – A multi-stakeholder association with offices in New York City that promotes the use and recovery of biodegradable materials via composting. Through third-party testing in an approved laboratory, BPI certifies that products meet the requirements in ASTM D6400 or D6868, and identify them with the BPI “Compostable” logo. (www.bpiworld.org)
Biodiversity – The number and variety of different organisms in the ecological complexes in which they naturally occur; encompasses the different ecosystems, species and genes needed for a healthy environment.
Bio-plastics – A form of plastic derived from renewable biomass sources, such as vegetable oil, corn starch, pea starch, micro biota, etc. Bio-plastics are used either as a direct replacement for traditional, petroleum-based plastics or as blends with traditional plastics.
Biopolymer – Some people will say that a biopolymer is a plastic that has a renewable content, and others will say that it is a material that is biodegradable, while others will say it’s a little of each. Many products that are on the market today are combinations of petroleum-based and renewable based materials. “Biopolymer” is one of those terms that come into the lexicon without being defined very well. To me, there’s nothing that says that biopolymer materials need to be biodegradable, nor do they need to be 100-percent renewably based. So you could have a blend of synthetic and renewable materials that don’t biodegrade (quoted from – Steven Mojo, executive director of The Biodegradable Products Institute)
Black – The absence of all reflected light; the colour that is produced when an object absorbs all wavelengths from the light source. When 100% cyan, magenta, and yellow colorants are combined, the resulting colour theoretically is black. In real-world applications, this combination produces a muddy grey or brown. In four-color process printing, black is one of the process inks. The letter “K” is used to represent Black in the CMYK acronym to avoid confusion with Blue’s “B” in RGB. The amount of black generated by the black file or film of a colour separation.
Black Body – A surface that absorbs all radiation falling upon it, and then re-emits it in a wavelength which is related to its absolute temperature.
Black liquor – Mixture of cooking chemicals and dissolved wood material remaining after sulphate cooking; recovered during pulp washing, concentrated by evaporation and burned in the recovery boiler to regenerate the cooking chemicals and generate energy
Black Printer – The plate made during the prepress printing process that is used with the cyan, magenta, and yellow printers to enhance the contrast and to emphasize the neutral tones and the details in the final reproduction shadow areas.
Blade coating – The predominant method of applying coatings to paper, in which an excess of coating is applied and then wiped off with a blade; the excess coating is returned to a reservoir for reuse.
Blade Extension – The amount the backup and doctor blades extend beyond the holder, 3/8 to 1/2 inches.
Blank – (1) A folding carton after cutting and creasing but before folding and gluing. (2) Category of paperboard ranging in thickness from 15 to 48 points.
Blanket – A rubber surfaced fabric used in offset lithography which is clamped around the cylinder and transfers the image from plate to paper.
Bleached Display Liner – Designed specifically for the demands of postprint flexographic printing, this substrate offers a bleached, uncoated surface often laminated to corrugated medium for the construction of sturdy boxes or displays. It has also been successfully used in preprint flexographic applications. End uses: corrugated containers for a wide variety of uses, point of purchase displays, specialty products to meet particular customer needs.
Bleached pulp – Pulp of a high degree of whiteness produced from pulp of a natural colour (brown/buff) by a chemical bleaching process.
Bleaching – Removal or modification of coloured components in pulp to improve brightness. Bleaching for chemical pulp is carried out in several consecutive stages.
Bleach Test – A method of measuring tinctorial strength of an ink, or toner, by blending it with an opaque white ink of the same kind, then evaluating the tinting strength of the ink versus a control standard.
Bleed – (1) In page layout, any printed area that extends to the edge of a page, usually accomplished by printing beyond the actual work size and then trimming. (2) The overlap between two or more colours to insure sufficient printed area in the event of misregister in printing. (3) The tendency for an ink to exhibit varied solubility in a material, such as in alcohol, paraffin, or soap; also, may refer to slight solubility of the ink into the substrate.
Bleeding – Slurred lines on trailing edge of etch. Shadows showing on unprinted areas as the doctor blade leaves print.
Blend – A mixture, such as a combination of solvents and inks.
Blending – see Compounding and Blending
Blind – An impression of an un-inked image.
Blind Debossing – A strong letterpress impression of an un-inked image on the front surface of a sheet of paper. The image is recessed.
Blind Embossing – The process of creating relief without any ink or foil decoration.
Blind Folio – A page number not printed on the page. (In the book arena, a blank page traditionally does not print a page number.)
Blind Image – Image debossed, embossed or stamped, but not printed with ink or foil.
Blister – A plastic dome or bubble, usually transparent, attached to a piece of boxboard to form a package.
Blister Pack – A unit dose package commonly constructed from a formed cavity or blister containing one or more doses. The blisters therefore are the primary packaging, and they are normally sealed to a card that provides secondary packaging. See Printkote Blisterpak.
Blister packer – A system to fill, lid and seal blister packs.
Blocking – The sticking together of printed surfaces with another surface brought into contact through stacking or rewinding.
Blotting board or blotting paper – Paperboard with a very high absorbency,
Blowing agents – for styrene such as HCFC, 152B, Pentane, Butane, Iso-pentane and CO2 blends.
Blow moulding – A process for forming hollow containers in which the plastic is placed inside a mould and forced outwards via air pressure to assume the shape of that mould cavity. (1) Extruded molten plastic is captured in moulds that define the shape of the final part design. Air at pre-determined pressures is added forcing the plastic to take on the shape of the mould. After cooling the mould is opened and the final plastic part, component or product is removed for trimming and packaging. (2) Formation of a bottle from a molten plastic tube by blowing air into the mass, forcing the material to follow the shape of the mould.
Blown Films – Plastic films produced from synthetic resins (such as polyethylene) by the blown process. In this process, the molten resin is extruded through a circular die into a tube. This tube is expanded (“blown”) by internal air pressure into a larger bubble with a much reduced wall thickness and cooled with external air quenching.
Blown film is one of two principle processes used to fabricate film products. Films are typically defined as less than 0.254 mm (10 mils) in thickness, although blown film can be produced as high as 0.5 mm (20 mils). The blown film process is used to produce a wide variety of products, ranging from simple mono-layer films for bags to very complex multi-layer structures used in food packaging.
Co-extrusion is also a growing process technology, which provides additional functional, protective, and decorative properties. (source: http://www.dow.com/)
Blow Ratio – In blow moulding it is the ratio of the mould cavity diameter to the parison diameter.
Blueline – Prepress photographic proof made from stripped negatives where all colours show as blue images on white paper. Because “blueline” is a generic term for proofs made from a variety of materials having identical purposes and similar appearances, it may also be called a blackprint, blue, blueprint, brownline, brownprint, diazo, dyeline, ozalid, position proof, silverprint, Dylux and VanDyke. Rarely used today.
Blushing – A print defect consisting of a hazy appearance, encountered in foil printing and caused by moisture trapped between the ink film and the surface of the substrate.
Board – Thick and stiff fibre based material often consisting of several plies; widely used for packaging purposes (grammage 150-600 g/m2).
Board Paper – General term for paper over 110# index, 80# cover or 200 gsm that is commonly used for products such as file folders, displays and post cards. Also called paperboard.
Board types –
– Cast coated board – Material that has been coated with a special blend of white pigment and plastic binder and then cast against a highly polished surface to produce a high gloss finish. European designations: GG1 (white back cast coated folding boxboard), GG2 (cream back cast coated folding boxboard), GGZ (cast coated solid bleached board).
– Coated board – Coated typically with a white mixture of materials such as china clay and/or calcium carbonate with binders to produce a smooth and improved surface, particularly for printing and varnishing.
– Extrusion coated board – Board that has been covered with a continuous layer of a thermoplastic material, typically polyethylene or polypropylene, by the extrusion coating process i.e. where a thermoplastic material is melted and forced through a narrow slot onto a moving web of board.
– Folding boxboard – Multi-ply construction of a coated board made predominantly from mechanical pulp but with a bleached chemical pulp liners. European designations: GC1 (white back folding boxboard), GC2 (cream back folding boxboard).
– Grey board – See Unlined chipboard
– Kraft board – Solid pulp board produced by the sulphate process with or without bleaching. European designation: GZ (coated solid bleached board).
– Lined chipboard – Unlined chipboard that is modified by use of a thin layer of different pulp to provide a liner, for example, unbleached chemical pulp to give kraft lined chipboard.
– Semi-chemical fluting – A strong and flexible material formed as the middle layer of corrugated board, usually made from short (hardwood) fibres pulped using a combination of chemical and mechanical processes.
– Solid board – Made of one or more plies of bleached (solid bleached board, SBB) or unbleached chemical pulp (solid unbleached board, SUB).
– Test liner – A liner, used as the inner or outer layer of a corrugated construction, the material being made partly from waste paper.
– Uncoated board – Board not treated as in coated board, although it may have a light application of surface size.
– Unlined chipboard – A material made entirely from waste paper in one or more piles. The quality can vary significantly depending on the choice of waste paper and the manufacturing process.
– White lined chipboard – A multi-ply construction made predominantly from selected waste paper with a bleached chemical pulp liner. European designation: GD or GT (coated recycled board).
Body – (1) Refers to the viscosity or flow characteristics of an ink or vehicle. (2) In typography, the main shank or portion of a letter character other than the ascenders and descenders.
Body Dimension – The width, thickness, diameter, and height of a bottle including measurements, controlling contours or other physical dimensions.
Bogus – Papers and paperboards which are manufactured from inferior materials in imitation of higher quality grades.
Boiling Range – A definite range of temperatures over which some solvents will boil or distil.
BON – Bi-axially oriented nylon film, with excellent oxygen and aroma barrier properties, (see Nylon), but it is a poor water vapour barrier. BON is much stiffer than cast nylon film, but cannot be thermoformed.
Bond – The union of two substrates.
Bond paper – A typing paper of 70-100 g/m2 grammage.
BOPP – bi-axial oriented polypropylene.
Border – The decorative design or rule surrounding matter on a page.
Bottle (acrylic) –
Bottle (alu) –
Bottle (beer) –
Bottle (beverage) – see Beverage Bottle
Bottle (glass) –
Bottle (longneck) –
Bottle (retort) –
Bottle (RFID) –
Bottle (squeeze) –
Bottle (stackable) –
Bottle (twisted neck) –
Bottle (wine) –
Bottle Carrier –
Bottle Shaped Pouch –
Bottom Liner -The surface of the boxboard which forms the interior of the carton, also called the “back-liner”.
Bounce – (1) a repeating registration problem in the printing stage of production. (2) Customer unhappy with the results of a printing project and refuses to accept the project.
Bowl feeder – Vibratory bowl used to feed components up a spiral ramp.
Bowling Pin Shape (bottle) –
Bowl-shaped cans –
Box – (1) A term describing a unit container made from (a) non-bending grades of paperboard, i.e., set-up box; or (b) shipping container containerboard grades of corrugated or solid fibre, i.e., corrugated or solid fibre boxes.
Box (hexagonal) –
Box (octagonal) –
Boxboard – (1) A paperboard used in the manufacture of light non-corrugated containers (e.g., cereal boxes). It may be plain, lined, or clay coated. (2) A term used to describe bending and non-bending grades of the fibrous material used in the manufacture of folding cartons, set-up boxes, fibre cans and the like. In the folding carton industry this term is used interchangeably with the terms “board,” “paperboard,” or “folding boxboard.” (See Paperboard)
BPA (bisphenol A) – An estrogen-like product that is used to harden plastic in packaging such as bottles and cups. BPA also is found in the linings of metal cans such as those containing infant formula, which helps packaging withstand high sterilization temperatures.
The Food and Drug Administration had previously deemed BPA to be safe. Though the FDA is not saying that BPA is unsafe, the agency is citing new studies and says it now has concerns about the chemical’s potential to affect brain development of foetuses, infants, and children.
Beyond that, the Environmental Working Group and the Natural Resources Defence Council note research that links BPA to breast cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and other health ailments. In addition, some retailers have stopped selling baby bottles containing BPA, and some marketers of baby bottles and infant feeding cups no longer use BPA in those products in the U.S.
However, the American Chemistry Council counters that two recent research studies show that BPA is safe to use in packaging. The ACC in February cited a study that was published in Toxicological Sciences, a scientific journal.
BrailleCAM – A hand-held, portable camera, developed by Troika Systems Limited, Highworth, UK, specifically designed to measure and view Braille dots with precision and clarity. The camera utilises a PC link in order to show 3D images of a dot using colour representation, allowing the user to view dot form and inspect for surface cracking. The system also provides the tools necessary for highly detailed measurement and recording of dot values. BrailleCAM can measure male and female embossing tools as well as final output. When measuring finished product, the auto-focus feature of the camera automatically finds the top surface. It then takes a series of images, each with a different focus depth, down to the ground level of the substrate. Software removes all un-sharp parts of each image and combines the levels into a rendered 3D grid model. This can be analysed via the PC and rotated in any direction. (www.troika-systems.com) Read also: Braille On Pharma Packaging.
Break for colour – Also known as a colour break. To separate mechanically or by software the parts to be printed in different colours.
Breaking Strength – The measure of strength of paper, films, etc.
Breakout (Blade Edge) – Piece of doctor blade material that releases itself from the blade, causing a streak. Also see – Burr.
Brewmasters Thermometer – (TM)
Brightening – Addition of optical brighteners to the stock and/or coating colour to make the pulp appear whiter
Brightness – (1) The quality of white intensity as measured by the percent of reflectance of a boxboard surface compared to a standard block of magnesium oxide by means of an optical instrument and expressed in “points of brightness.” The recognized test procedure is TAPPI’s Standard T 452m. (2) The reflectance or brilliance of the substrate when measured under a specially calibrated blue light. Not necessarily related to colour or whiteness. Brightness is expressed in percentage. It affects legibility and contrast of printing. (3) A method of defining the surface whiteness. It is expressed as a percentage of the reflectance from an ideal white surface. The instrument disregards the influences of gloss and measures the reflection of blue light with a wave length of 457 nm.
Brightness Reversion – See: Yellowing
Bright Plating Range – The range of current densities within which a given plating solution produces a bright plate.
Broke – Paper trimmings, paper damaged due to breaks on a paper machine or not manufactured to the required quality specification. Broke is usually fed back into the paper manufacturing process.
Bromide – (1) A black-and-white photographic print on paper. (2) Continuous-tone copy used as input for electronic engravers.
Bronzing – Applying bronzing powder over a surface printed with sizing ink that is still wet, to produce a metallic effect.
Brush Finish – A finish produced by running dried clay coated boxboard against rapidly revolving cylindrical brushes.
Brush glazing – Glazing of coated paper with the aid of brushes.
BTU (British Thermal Unit) – The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit.
Bubble-shaped bottle –
BugBan 9000 coating –
Bulk – The thickness of a pile of an exact number of sheets under a specified pressure. The reciprocal of paper density – a high-bulk sheet has low density, i.e., it is a relatively thick paper in relation to its grammage. (“Bulk” is commonly used to mean thickness). Also known as specific volume. Low bulk is good for rotogravure.
Bulk product – A mass-produced product sold in large volumes without individual specifications, usually in compliance with a standard. Newsprint is one example.
Bund – A containment unit built around liquid material storage tanks and areas for products with the potential to cause harm if accidentally released. The bunds are constructed of a material that is impermeable to the materials stored.
Bundle – (1) The unit of boxboard containing sheets weighing 50 pounds. The quantity of sheets varies with their size, weight and calliper; but the weight of 50 pounds per bundle is fixed. (2) Bundle also refers to a quantity of finished cartons.
Bundle wrapping – (also known as bull’s-eye packaging, because of its distinctive open ends) A flexible-film option for heavier and larger multi-packs of two to 12 units that offers a surface for high-impact graphics, using primarily print-registered polyethylene film. The film’s thickness (1 millimetre to 1.5 millimetre) supports the weight of bottles, cans, and jars without the need for paperboard cartons, trays, inserts, or pads. The film’s thickness provides package-carrying strength and tamper-resistance.
Burn – A term used for exposure in plate making.
Burned deposit – A rough, non-coherent, or otherwise unsatisfactory deposit produced by the application of excessive current density and usually containing oxides or other inclusions.
Burr – A wire like sliver formed by blade wear.
Burst – Machine direction, an irregular separation or rupture in the web in the machine direction that may be evident as the web continues to unwind.
Bursting Strength – Paper’s strength to resist pressure; the resistance of paper to rupture as measured by the pressure required to burst it when a uniformly distributed and increasing pressure is applied to its top or bottom side.
Burst Perfect Bind – To bind by forcing glue into notches along the spines of gathered signatures before affixing a paper cover. Also called burst bind, notch bind and slotted bind.
Butt – Joining images without overlapping.
Butt Register – Register where ink colours meet precisely without overlapping or allowing space between, as compared to lap register. Also called butt fit and kiss register.
Buttress Thread – A type of threading in which the thread sides terminate abruptly; the threading gradually tapering down to the neck finish. Design to withstand maximum force in one direction only. Cross section of thread is triangular.
Butt Splice – Formed by trimming the ends of two webs of paper, placing them end-to-end, and pasting a strip over and under to make a continuous web without overlapping.
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