Updated 19 January 2011
Sachet – A small flexible package made by bonding two layers together on all four sides.
Sack paper – Kraft paper, usually uncalendered, used to make paper sacks; also sack kraft.
Saddle-type portion-pack –
Saint-Gobain Calmar –
Saint-Gobain Desjonquères –
Salting Out – In printing the precipitation of a substance from a solution, by the action of added salts, through temperature drop, or from over-concentration resulting from evaporation of the liquid in the solution.
SAN – Styrol-Acrylnitril-Copolymer.
Sans-Serif – A font that lack serifs (the crosswise end strokes on most letters). Examples include Helvetica and Avant Garde.
Satin Finish – Alternate term for dull finish on coated paper.
Saturating Kraft – Unbleached paper made from mainly hardwood cooked in the kraft pulping process. The layers of HPL that provide strength and bulk, typically treated with phenolic resin.
Saturation – The nature of colours in terms of density. A colour with heavy saturation will have higher densitometric values when compared to a colour having less saturation and lower densitometric values. In photography, a saturated colour original would show colours at their maximum reproduction density without reproduction as a shadow. Colour will tend to appear pure in nature when heavy with nature.
SBC – styrene-butadiene copolymer.
SBS – See: solid bleached sulphate.
SC – See Supercalandered.
Scale – (1) A defect in coated papers consisting of slightly coloured reflective spots, caused by dry coating material embedded in the paper during calandering. (2) To identify the percent by which photographs or art should be enlarged or reduced to achieve, the correct size for printing.
Scale Compression – The shortening of the tonal scale used in conventional lithographic processes to compensate the ink and paper press gains often found in the printing process. It can also effectively lighten a dark original when scanning. This scale compensation always takes place, and is part of the colour reproduction process.
Scaling – Determining the proper size of an image to be produced (or reduced/enlarged). It is important that both directions be scaled in order to ensure proper fit in the final reproduction.
Scanned Image – The image that results when a photograph, slide, paper image or other two or three-dimensional image is converted into a digital, raster image.
Scanner – A laser-driven device used to digitize images to be manipulated, output or stored on a computer.
Scattering – Diffusion or redirection of radiant energy encountering particles of different refractive index. Scattering occurs at any such interface, at the surface, or inside a medium containing particles.
Scavenger Marks – Etched or engraved areas in a non-printing area of a print cylinder, used to lubricate the doctor blade.
Scavenger-verification system –
ScentSational Technologies –
Scoring – A score is a crease or series of perforations that allow board to be bent without tearing or cracking (while a cut separates the board into two pieces). Scoring delaminates the board so that its stiffness is reduced at the score line. Scoring is essential when heavyweight board is to be folded across the grain. Cutting and scoring may be done at the same time with the same die.
Scratch – (1) A defect on the paper surface when a clump of fibres collects on the trailing blade coater and prevents the coating from being evenly distributed. A scratch leaves a white or discoloured line on the printed surface. (2) Marks on a photographic print or film appearing as streaks or scratches, caused by the condition of the developer.
Screen Angles – (1.) Angle that cylinder cells and corresponding printed ink dots are positioned in relation to the horizontal axis of the cylinder or print. (2.) In lithography, it is necessary to rotate the angles of the screens in order to create a rosette pattern. Using a horizontal line as a base plane, the first angle would be found at 45-degree angle from the base, 75 degrees would be the next, 90 degrees and finally 105 degrees.
Screen Density – Refers to the percentage of ink coverage that a screen tint allows to print. Also called screen percentage.
Screeners – Pigments or additives which, apart from being active in the visible range, screens out UV radiation and/or visible radiation by absorbing or reflecting it.
Screen Frequency – A measure of how many lines of dots compose each inch of a halftone screen. A 120 lpi screen ruling has 120 lines of dots for each inch of the halftone screen. The lower the screen ruling the lower the overall reproduction quality.
Screening – (1) A print defect caused by uneven flow of ink between cells, usually forming a screen pattern. Caused by high viscosity ink, or ink drying too fast. (2) Shapes of cylinder cells showing up in print.
Screen Printing – A printing process that employs stencils adhered to tightly drawn screens. Ink is forced through the openings in the stencil and onto the substrate. This process is well suited for printing on materials like glass, wood, thick plastics and textiles.
Screen Process Inks – A stencilling process by which a heavy film of ink is applied to the image area. Variation of the thickness of screen material and mesh size determines the thickness of ink film laid down. By the use of specialized inks with the proper adhesion characteristics, bonding can be accomplished to a wide range of materials from metal to paper to plastics. All of these inks must be short to print without running and squeegee with little resistance.
Screen Ruling – The number of lines or dots per inch in both directions on a contact screen to make halftones or separations. Screen rulings are available from 65 lines per inch to 200 lines per inch. For colour separations, however, it is best to use 150 line screens for best press control and visual resolution.
Screen Tint – Colour created by dots instead of solid ink coverage. Also called Benday, fill pattern, screen tone, shading, tint and tone.
Screw cap (general) – A cylindrical closure having a continuous thread on the internal surface of the cylinder capable of engaging mating external helical thread on the finish or neck of a container.
Screw cap (wine bottles) – Bottle closures consisting of an aluminium cap with threads and a liner. While they can form a very tight seal, there is debate as to the extent of reduction as a result of insufficient oxygen ingress, resulting in sulphur-like aromas and flavour suppression. Special bottling equipment and a threaded bottle must be used. Consumer acceptance is also an issue in many markets.
Screw-on – A capping system which secures the closure onto the bottle by means of screwing.
Screw top nozzle –
Scuff Resistance – The ability to withstand surface rubbing. It is tested on an S+S Scuff Tester, and it measures the number of double strokes needed to cause 1) Fuzz (appearance of loose fibrous fuzz), and 2) Peel (actual rupture of the surface).
Scuff-Resistant Inks – Special ink that will stay bright and attractive in spite of rough handling on filling lines, in shipment and packaging.
Scumming – A deposit on ink on the non-printing areas of a gravure cylinder, often leaving a residual haze over a large area of web. Also known as Greasing.
Seal – Result of joining of packaging layers. NOTE – A seal may be created, e.g., by use of adhesives or thermal fusion (ref. ISO 11607 – 2003(E)).
Sealed Air Corp –
Sealing Surface – The lip portion of the finish which makes contact with the sealing gasket or liner and forms a seal.
Seal integrity – Condition of the seal that ensures that it presents a microbial barrier to at least the same extent as the rest of the packaging. Note – In EN 868-1 the definition of this term differs slightly (ref. ISO 11607 – 2003(E)).
Seal-It Inc –
Seal strength – Mechanical strength of the seal (ref. ISO 11607 – 2003(E)).
Seaquist Closures –
Seaquist SimpliDrink –
Secondary Colours – Colours created by combining two primary colorants of a colour system. Example: red would be the secondary colour produced with magenta and yellow. Also referred to as overprint colours.
Secondary fibre – See Recycled fibre.
Secondary Packaging – Outer package into which the primary package is placed, e.g., a folding carton, a fold-over blister card, a display carton, or a shipping container. Secondary packaging may provide additional barrier properties, but its major function is to protect the product during shipping and distribution, to provide essential information and attractive retail display, and, especially with high-end products, to project a distinctive brand image.
SecuPack – A counterfeit protection system for packaging developed by 3S Simons Security Systems GmbH. SecuPack was developed on the basis of the worldwide smallest micro colour-code-particles SecuTag. These colour-codes are made of melamine alkyd polymers, manufactured in different sizes ranging from 8 to 90 micrometers. Like a genetic fingerprint, SecuTag identifies a product as original. With the so-called sandwich method, the different colour components are layered on top of each other. The selection of the colours and their sequence make up over 4.35 billion individual company codes. The colour-codes are applied onto different materials by established printing processes, directly added to the products or applied by means of a dispenser. Read also: “A Genetic Fingerprint in Colour-Code”
Security bag –
Self-adhesive – An adhesive that bonds by pressure only. Used for pressure-sensitive labels.
Self-checking – Denoting a bar code system using a checking algorithm.
Self-cooling device –
Self-heating container (beverages) –
Self-refrigerating can –
Self-venting package –
Semi-alkaline pulp (SAP) – Sulphite pulp cooked at slightly alkaline pH (normal sulphite pulp is cooked at acid pH). SAP is superior in strength to normal sulphite pulp. Used mainly in printing papers.
Semi-bleached – Pulp bleached to a brightness somewhere between that of unbleached and fully bleached pulp.
Semi-chemical fluting – A strong and flexible material formed as the middle layer of corrugated board, usually made from short (hardwood) fibres, pulped using a combination of chemical and mechanical processes.
Semi-chemical pulp – Pulp in which the fibres have been separated mechanically after a preliminary chemical treatment; e.g. NSSC pulp.
Senior friendly – A package that is designed with the elderly in mind, perhaps easy-open for those with less agile hands, perhaps with large-print type for those with failing vision, etc.
Sequence of Colours – In multi-colour printing, the trapping characteristics of each colour depend on the sequence of colours as it is printed.
Serif – A crosswise stroke at the end of a letter. Example fonts include Bookman and Times.
Serigraphic Printing – Printing method whose image carriers are woven fabric, plastic or metal that allow ink to pass through some portions and block ink from passing through other portions. Serigraphic printing includes screen and mimeograph.
Set – Inks are said to have “set” when the printed sheets, though not fully dry, can be handled without smudging.
Set-Off – An undesirable transfer of ink from a printed sheet to the back of the printed sheet next to it. Sometimes mistakenly called “offsetting.”
Settleable solids – Suspended solids that will settle out of an effluent during mechanical treatment.
Set-up box –
SFI – Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI) program. A comprehensive system of principles, objectives and performance measures developed by professional foresters, conservationists and scientists, among others that combines the perpetual growing and harvesting of trees with the long-term protection of wildlife, plants, soil and water quality.
SGP Partnership – see Sustainable Green Printing Partnership.
Shade – Hue made darker by the addition of black, as compared to tint.
Shadow – The darkest parts of a photograph, which receive little or no light, represented in a halftone by the largest dots and greatest printing density. In printing, it is advisable to avoid excessive information in the shadow area because when separations are made, the tones and ranges of the original are compressed, making it difficult to maintain shadow details.
Shaft Deflection – The amount of printing cylinder deflection at centre due to impression pressure.
Shaft encoder – A device, for measuring the speed of an object, which converts this information into a series of signals, which may be interpreted by an ink jet printer.
Shaped can – half hour-glass shaped can.
Sharp Wire – The resultant angle of the doctor blade to the cylinder as the doctor blade angle is decreased. Also referred to as Steep Wipe.
Sheet Extrusion – Thermoplastic polymers are often extruded into a sheet for subsequent forming/processing. The polymer sheet, shown below, is extruded and then brought into contact with the adhesive film. The residual heat from the extruded sheet activates the adhesive. The strength of the bond depends upon material selection and processing conditions. (source: http://www.dow.com/)
Sheetfed Press – Press that uses pre-cut sheets of paper, rather than rolls.
Sheet Feeder – A corrugating plant that has no converting equipment and produces only corrugated sheet. Its customers are typically independent sheet plants. The term ‘sheet feeder’ can also mean the device at the front of die cutters/flexo folder gluers.
Sheet Plant – Comprises converting equipment and does not produce its own corrugated board. Typically, sheet plants are smaller operations offering their customers personalised service.
Sheeter – Equipment for cutting paper and board from reels into sheets of desired size.
Shelf life (or storage life) – The time period a product can be stored under specified temperature conditions and still retains its minimum acceptable quality or safety.
Shell – A hat shaped and preliminary form of closure prior to being threaded and knurled.
Shield – A non-conducting medium for altering the current distribution on an anode or cathode, sometimes employed to control current where anode and cathode areas are disproportionate.
Shipping container –
Short fibre – Applies to paper or pulp containing a high proportion of short wood fibres.
Short Ink – An ink that does not flow freely.
Short ton – 2,000 pounds. Compare to Metric Ton and Long Ton.
Shoulder – The portion of a (glass or plastic) container in which the maximum cross section or body area decreases to join the neck of the container.
Showthrough – Printing on one side of the paper that can be seen when looking at the other side.
Shrinkage – The change in dimension (decrease) which a moulded article undergoes after being moulded. Shrinkage is caused by cooling and subsequent contraction of the plastic material.
Shrink-banding – Heat tightening of a band of plastic material, to collate goods or seal a closure (may alternatively be achieved by moisture loss from a cellulose band).
ShrinkBox EZ material –
Shrink Films – Oriented films that are not heat-set after orientation. These films can shrink back close to their unstretched dimension at temperatures higher than the temperature of their orientation. See PVC Shrink Film, PET-G Shrink Film, and OPS Shrink Film.
Shrink sleeve – A printed sleeve-like plastic film tube inserted over the product, then shrinked by a heat device or steam tunnel to fit the product.
Shrink sleeve (PLA) –
Shrink Sleeving – A process where a full body PVC or PETG pre-printed sleeve is applied over the bottle and shrunk to the body contour of the bottle by conveying it through a dry-heat or steam tunnel.
Shrink wrapping – A packaging technique in which the strains in a plastic film are released by raising the temperature of the film thus causing it to shrink over the package. This film option is preferred for multi-packs ranging from two bottles of juice to a 24-pack of bottled water, and needing simple barrier protection. The film (.45 millimetre to .75 millimetre) is heat-shrunk to the contour of the package’s contents. Trays, inserts, or pads often are required to enhance package strength.
Side-Gusset Pouch/Bag – A pouch/bag with gussets on both sides, with a fin-seal running from top to bottom and sealed horizontally at the bottom and the top. Commonly used in the coffee industry.
Side Register – The control of print register on the horizontal axis, i.e., from one edge of the web to the other.
Side-seal gusseted bag – The seal on a side seal gusseted bag is placed on the side of the back of the bag. That gives the option to place the valve on the backside of the bag or have the bag side printed without interruption. Labels placed on side-seal bags lay smooth and flat – giving the products a more polished image.
Silgan Closures –
Silgan Containers Corp –
Silgan Plastics –
Silhouette bottle –
Silhouettes – A likeness to another image cut from dark material and mounted on light background. Removing the background of an image by displaying through a mask.
Silk-Screen Printing – Silk-screen printing allows printing a design and product information in almost any colour (or combination of colours) directly onto the surface of a glass, ceramic, or powder coated container. See also Applied Ceramic Labelling
Single Wall Corrugated – This consists of Liner / Medium / Liner. Mini-flute is a type of single wall corrugated.
Single-faced corrugated board – Corrugated fibreboard consisting of two layers, one of fluted paper and one of facing; used for packaging furniture.
Single-facer – The section of a corrugator which forms the corrugated shape in the medium, applies adhesive to it and then bonds it to the flat linerboard. The output from a single-facer is referred to as single-face board. Most corrugators have more than one single-facer to enable different flute sizes to be used.
Single-serve pack –
Single-wall carton – This is a corrugated fibreboard carton made by gluing a sheet of fluted corrugated material between two flat sheets of linerboard.
Sink Marks – Depression defects in a moulded parts surface caused by uneven cooling shrinkage of some polymer. Foam concentrates create an internal pressure to flatten the polymer to the mould surface and eliminate sink marks.
SiO3 coated PET – This non-metallic substrate is a new and exciting development in the flexible packaging industry. First of all it enables the elimination of metal foils such as AL and VMPET from the packaging. Secondly, it enables the bag to be partly transparent, while maintaining high barrier properties.
Sipahh milk-flavoring straw –
Six Sigma – A Six Sigma company achieves fewer than four defects per million opportunities.
Six-pack (beer) –
Sizing – Resins, starches or other compounds added to paper to increase its resistance to penetration by ink and water. Paper with little sizing, such as newsprint is called slack-sized; heavily sized papers such as bond and ledger are called hard-sized. Sizing may be mixed in the pulp or applied to the surface of a partially dry web (surface-sized). Surface sizing is carried out by application of chemicals in a water solution or dispersion to modify surface properties or provide barrier properties against, for example, grease or water.
Skew – Twisting or turning associated with print register where one side of the printed substrate is in register while the opposite side is out of register (at the same time).
Skinning – The formation of a dried layer or film on the surface of a quantity of ink after a period of standing.
Skin packaging – Using vacuum to pull heat-softened plastic film tightly over a product whilst sealing the film to an underlying porous surface. See also: Contour Packaging.
Skinsleever – A printing process, called Helioflex, developed by Sleever International that creates a tactile finish in a 3D-effect to provide an added marketing tool for consumer communication. The varnish enhances and boosts the printing volume. It is compatible with all types of films and can be applied to designs requiring up to 14 colours. The operation is carried out with such precision, within a few tenths of a millimetre, that the resulting finish is superlatively subtle.
The first application for this new process was on Cricket lighters, which have been metamorphosed into a fashion statement.
Skirt of Cap – The vertical part of a closure below the shoulder.
SKU – Stock keeping unit, sometimes spelled ‘SKU’,’ is identification, usually alphanumeric, of a particular product that allow sit to be tracked for inventory purposes. Typically, an SKU (pronounced with the individual letters or as S K YEW) is associated with any purchasable item in a store or catalogue.
Slack fill – This occurs when a manufacturer uses a larger container than necessary to hold its product.
Sleeve – In printing the tubular part of a base cylinder, which can be mounted on a shaft.
Sleever Braille –
Sleever International –
Slime Hole – A paper defect caused by bacteria or fungus, which replace or impose themselves upon paper fibres.
Slip – An ink additive that imparts lubricating qualities to the surface of the dried ink film.
Slip Compound – An additive for ink that imparts lubricating qualities to the dried ink film.
Slipped Core – A paper defect in which the paper in a roll is not properly glued to the core.
Slip Sheets – Separate sheets (stock) independent from the original run positioned between the “printed run” for a variety of reasons.
Slitter Turnover – An edge break on a roll of paper caused by a slitter that turns over during winding. The edge of the break protrudes from the roll.
Slitting – Cutting printed sheets or webs into two or more sections by means of cutting wheels on a press or folder.
Slow/Timed Release – A technology which deals with the controlled release of a chemical from a certain product.
SLPP – Super Low Profile Pumps.
Slug Hole – A paper defect resulting from the paper machine picking out a group of fibres superimposed over the sheet.
Slur Stick – A small, specially designed stick of wood or other soft material used to dislodge foreign particles from the edge of a doctor blade.
Slurry – A suspension of solids in water.
SMA – styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) copolymer resins.
Smart Lid Systems –
Smart Spout –
Smartseal (winged) –
SME – small and medium enterprises.
Smoothness – The evenness of a substrate’s microscopic surface contour; the degree to which the surface is uniform, i.e., free of irregularities. Sheffield Smoothness is a measure of formation-induced irregularities and measures smoothness for lamination. The Parker Print surface test measures micro variation in roughness in the substrate’s surface and measures suitability for printing. Print quality tends to improve with increasing paper smoothness.
Smurfit-Stone Container Corp –
Snap-on or Pressurised – A capping system which secures the closure onto the bottle by means of vertical pressure.
Snowflaking – Condition of a printed area characterized by very small dots of unprinted areas showing throughout a deposited ink.
Soak Cleaning – Cleaning by immersion in a cleaning solution, as opposed to electrolytic cleaning.
Soft End – A paper defect caused by web thickness variation. One part of the roll feels soft compared with an adjacent end.
Soft Proof – A proof that can be viewed on a monitor instead of on paper.
Soft Start – A tension controller feature used in unwind zones; soft start causes the controller output to drop to a preset low level to prevent brake lockup when the machine starts; the feature is actuated automatically upon loss of tension below a preset trip point, by a change in machine speed, or by an external contact closure.
Softwoods – Typically coniferous species such as spruce, fir, pine and larch, which are grown in Scandinavia and northern Europe for production of softwood pulp, commonly used for boards.
Solid – Any area of the sheet receiving 100 percent ink coverage, as compared to a screen tint.
Solid Bleached Sulphate (SBS) – Premium paperboard grade containing at least 80% of fully bleached virgin kraft pulp (sulphate process) fibre. Bleached refers to the fact that it is bleached to an appealing high brightness. Sulphate refers to the chemical process used in preparing the pulp.
Solid board – Made of one or more plies of bleached (solid bleached board, SBB) or unbleached chemical pulp (solid unbleached board, SUB).
Solid fibreboard – Board of over 600 g/m2 intended for packaging; often has an outer ply of kraft pulp.
Solid Loading – The spring or hydraulic or pneumatic cylinder in a press. When completely compressed, it causes the loading to become direct.
Solids Content – The percentage of solid material contained in an ink formulation; includes pigment, extender, binder, plasticizers and wax.
Solvent – Liquid that dissolves a solid. In ink, the evaporation of solvent leaves the solids behind as an ink film on the substrate.
Solvent Load – The maximum rate of solvents to be evaporated in a dryer or solvent recovery system.
Solvent Recovery System – A system designed to remove evaporated solvents from dryer exhaust air and the pressroom air, collecting the solvent for reuse.
Solvent Release – The ability of a binder to influence the rate of evaporation of a solvent.
Sonoco – Sonoco (NYSE: SON), founded in 1899, is a $2.8 billion manufacturer of industrial and consumer products and provider of packaging services, with nearly 300 operations in 36 countries serving customers in some 85 nations. Sonoco is the world’s largest producer of composite cans, which are used to package a wide array of food and non-food products. More information at http://www.sonoco.com.
Sonoco (paperboard can) –
Sonoco For-Plas –
Sonoco Shatterproof Retort Pouch –
Soy-Based Inks – Inks using vegetable oils instead of petroleum products as pigment vehicles, thus are easier on the environment.
Special pulps – Chemical pulps used for purposes other than ordinary papermaking (e.g. in textile production).
Speciality papers – Large group of papers designed and produced to meet the unique packaging, printing and labelling needs of customers with diverse and highly specialized paper needs. Includes kitchen and hygiene tissue, wallpaper base, label paper, sack paper, wrapping.
Specific Gravity – A comparison of the weight of a given volume of a material with the weight of an equal volume of water. Water has a specific gravity of 1.0.
Spectral Curve – A colour’s “fingerprint,” a visual representation of a colour’s spectral data. A spectral curve is plotted on a grid comprised of a vertical axis – the level of reflectance intensity; and a horizontal axis – the visible spectrum of wavelengths. The percentage of reflected light is plotted at each interval, resulting in points that form a curve.
Spectral Data – The most precise description of the colour of an object. An object’s colour appearance results from light being changed by an object and reflected to a viewer. Spectral data is a description of how the reflected light was changed. The percentage of reflected light is measured at several intervals across its spectrum of wavelengths. This information can be visually represented as a spectral curve.
Spectral Power Distribution Curve – Intensity of radiant energy as a function of wavelength, generally given in relative power terms.
Spectrophotometer – An instrument for measuring colour samples at specified increments throughout the visible spectrum. Unlike densitometers and colorimeters, the spectrophotometers measure discrete wavelengths of light referenced to human perception. Spectrophotometers are the most common tool for measuring printed colour samples used to create ICC profiles.
Spectrophotometric curve – A curve that is plotted and with data generated by a spectrophotometer; a graph with relative reflectance or transmittance (or absorption) as the ordinate, plotted with wavelength or frequency as the abscissa.
Spectrum – The complete range of colours in light in a rainbow, from short wavelengths (ultraviolet) to long wavelengths (infrared) red.
Specular Gloss Test – A means of measuring paper or ink gloss by determining the amount of light reflected from a sample at specified angles.
Specular Highlight – Highlight area with no printable dots, thus no detail, as compared to a diffuse highlight. Also called catchlight and dropout highlight.
Spent liquor – Waste liquids from pulping and washing (cf. black liquor)
Spinning papers – Paper with a particularly high tensile strength in the machine direction; suitable for being spun into yarn or string.
Splatz pack –
Sports cap with whistle –
Spot holography –
Spout pouch – A recloseable or resealable pouch produced with a weld spout and a cap which allows for reclose-ability in a flexible package, particularly appropriate for liquids. Many forms and sizes of caps and spouts are available.
SPPF – solid-phase pressure forming.
Spray bottle –
Spunbonding: Process of forming fabric by layering filaments on a screen and immediately bonding.
Squeeze bottle –
Stabilo – or Quad Bag is unique by the way all four corners of the bag are heat sealed with the seal normally visible at the rear of the pack positioned at one of the corners. The end result is a stand up bag with exceptional point of sales presence, maximising surface areas on both front and rear of the pack, with no visible back seal.
Stakeholder – A party who affects, or can be affected by, an organization’s actions. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stakeholder)
Standing zipper pouch -The standard flat zipper pouch has a bottom gusset and comes as the name implies with a zipper. Both back and front can be rotogravure printed in up to 8 colours.
Stand-up pouch – Flexible pouch that stands erect without external support when filled with its intended content. An early stand-up pouch design (US Patent 3,380,646) was devised by the Doyen Brothers in France. That pouch design, including many variants, is still in use today. It is, in fact, the dominant style. The basic Doyen design consists of two flat sheets sealed together along their sides, with a “W” fold running along the bottom. When the pouch is filled, the “W” opens and provides a base on which the pouch can stand. The original Doyen design showed the top being sealed straight across, but subsequent modifications include fitments to allow the pouch to be re-closed after opening. See also Doy Pack. For more details read: “The Evolution of the Stand-Up Pouch” and “A Stand-Up Pouch in Paper”.
Stand-up pouch (retortable) –
Staple Fibres – Fibres cut to specific lengths.
Starch-based – Can refer to any material that contains starch.
Start/stop character – A bar code character included in a symbol to indicate to the scanner the beginning and end of the code.
Steam finishing – A way of treating paper before calendering to improve its density and surface smoothness.
Steam-and-serve package –
Steaming – Wood chips are often treated with steam prior to pulping; used in thermomechanical pulping.
Sterile – Free from viable micro-organisms. NOTE – For the purposes of EN 868-1, the term “sterile” is defined in EN 556 (ref. ISO 11607 – 2003(E)).
Sterile barrier system – The means by which a manufacturer ensures that a sterilized device remains in a sterile state until used in the manner intended. Typically such a system comprises a sealed unit surrounding the device that is an integral part of the product. When a healthcare professional purchases a sterile medical device, sterility is part of the product (ref. EUCOMED-ESPA Position Paper – Sterile barrier systems and Directive 94/62/EC).
Sterile fluid-path packaging – A system of protective port covers and/or packaging designed to ensure sterility of the portion of the medical device intended for contact with fluids (ref. ISO 11607 – 2003(E)).
Sterilisation – Any process that effectively kills or eliminates transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and prions) from a surface, equipment, foods, medications, or biological culture medium. Sterilisation can be achieved through application of heat, chemicals, irradiation, or filtration. Packaging medical devices and medicines to remain sterilized is then necessary.
Sterilisation (overpressure) –
Sterilisation compatibility – Attributes of the packaging material and/or system that allow it to both withstand the sterilisation process and attain the required conditions for sterilisation within the final package (ref. ISO 11607 – 2003(E)).
Stewardship practices –
STFI test – A test of the strength of the components of corrugated cartons. Downward pressure is applied to each component of the carton individually (for instance, each linerboard and the corrugate) to determine how much pressure, expressed in pounds per inch, is required to crush each. STFI is the acronym of the Swedish Technical Forest products Institute, where the test was devised. The Edge Crush Test tests the assembled corrugated carton in a similar way.
Stiffness – The ability of paper or paperboard to resist an applied bending force and to support its own weight while being handled. Stiffness, including the ratio of MD to CD stiffness, is a critical property for paperboard during the printing, converting, and filling processes. Stiffness is tested as Taber stiffness or, internationally, as L&W stiffness.
Stock – (1) A term referring to the materials that go into a sheet of paperboard in the state in which they exist just prior to going through the papermaking machine. (2) Suspension in water (slurry) of fibres and other components for papermaking during the period between defibration and web formation.
Stock Box – A carton which is manufactured in large quantities in advance of sale and sold in smaller quantities, usually to retailers.
Stock-keeping units – SKUs.
Storage Life – The period of time during which a liquid resin or packaged adhesive can be stored under specified temperature conditions and remain suitable for use.
Strength – Ability of paper or board to withstand mechanical stress
Stretch – Elongation of substrate under tension. The elongation is expressed as a percentage of the original length when stressed at a stated load and is measured in both MD and CD.
Stretch wrapping – A method of wrapping/collating product with an elastic film under tension.
Strike Sheet – See: Die Sheet.
Stripping – Removal of the excess board around or in carton blanks after die-cutting. This may be done either by hand or mechanically.
Structural Foam – Describes a moulded or extruded object possessing a smooth solid skin and a cellular core. Structural foam provides improved part strength to weight ratios.
Supercalandered (SC) – Paper treated in a supercalander, usually separate from the paper machine; uncoated magazine paper.
Surface Print – The process where by the ink is deposited directly onto the outermost surface of the packaging film or material. The process is most commonly used in short run printing. A UV (ultraviolet) coating may be added to provide a hard exterior finish that prevents the ink from flaking or chipping.
Surface Treating – Any method of treating a polyolefin so as to alter the surface and render it receptive to inks, paints, lacquers, and adhesives such as chemical, flame, and electronic treating.
Sustainability and/or Sustainable Development – Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. (World Commission on Environment and Development). Note: The Hartman Group’s report, “Marketing Sustainability 2010: Bridging the Gap Between Consumers and Companies”, found that consumer understanding of the term ‘sustainable’ is changing, moving away from more literal or dictionary meanings, such as ‘ability to last over time’ and ‘self-reliance’, toward wider concepts like ‘green’, ‘responsible farming and production methods’, and ‘conserving natural resources’. Read: “‘Natural’ Labelling Meets Consumer Scepticism”.
Sustainable – Among the characteristics sited by the Sustainable Packaging Coalition are that it is beneficial, safe and healthy for individuals and communities throughout its life cycle; is sourced, manufactured, transported and recycled using renewable energy; and maximizes the use of renewable or recycled source materials. See also note under ‘Sustainability’ and read: “‘Natural’ Labelling Meets Consumer Scepticism”.
Sustainable Green Printing Partnership (SGP Partnership) – A registration organization for the printing industry. It is designed to provide criteria and direction for what constitutes a sustainable green printing facility. (http://www.sgppartnership.org).
Styles – Folding cartons are made in a great variety of constructions. There is no standard numerical classification of styles, as they are identified by descriptive names and the proprietary designations of their inventors or manufacturers. In the Federal Specification “Boxes, Folding Paperboard” (PPP-B-566a) styles are listed by Roman numerals with variations in construction referred to as “types” with Arabic numbers, and “classes” with lower case letters.
Styling – Refers to the combination of colour and brightness of the substrate and is a subjective judgment rather than a measured property. A bright and blue-white sheet is generally preferred for paperboard printing (compared to one with a natural yellow tint).
Styrene maleic anhydride – SMA copolymer.
Substance – See Grammage.
Substrate – Generic term for the layers the laminate is composed of. A wide range of materials can be used, such as AL, LLDPE, Natural Kraft, PE, PET, VMPET, and Vinyl. The choice of material depends on the use of the final laminate.
Sugar cane –
Sulphate board – An extremely strong linerboard; also kraftboard
Sulphate pulp – Chemical pulp produced by cooking wood in a alkaline liquor containing sodium hydroxide and sodium sulphide.
Sulphate/kraft pulp – Cellulose fibre separated by a chemical (alkaline) process to give a brown coloured pulp of good strength.
Sulphite pulp – Chemical pulp produced by cooking wood in a liquor containing sodium, magnesium, ammonium or calcium bisulphite; not produced in Finland (SAP is an exception).
SUP – see stand-up pouch.
Supercalandered (SC) – Paper treated in a supercalander, usually separate from the paper machine; uncoated magazine paper.
SU-pouch – looks like a carton.
Supply chain –
Surface Energy – A property of a medium which describes the attraction that draws the surface molecules inward.
Surface pH – The pH value of the paper surface. Most papers are neutrally sized with a surface pH of around 7.
Surface treatment – Treating the surface of paper or board with size or coating colour.
Surlyn – A special ionomer copolymer produced by Dupont. It has excellent heat-sealability, maximum hot tack and it can be sealed through contaminants, and therefore it is used as a premium heat-seal layer for packaging films, especially recommended for high speed packaging machines.
Surpass resins –
Susceptor – A laminated disc specifically developed for the microwaveability of food products by putting extra heat where it is needed, helping in the reduction of time preparation while browning and crisping the product.
Susceptor technology – The term susceptor is used to describe “active” packaging that heats when exposed to microwave energy. By absorbing microwave energy and converting it to high surface temperatures, susceptor packaging crisps and browns a wide variety of foods. Susceptors can also be temperature controlled to speed cooking and improve product texture. See for more: http://www.inlinepkg.com/index.htm
Sustainable – Among the characteristics sited by the Sustainable Packaging Coalition are that it is beneficial, safe and healthy for individuals and communities throughout its life cycle; is sourced, manufactured, transported and recycled using renewable energy; and maximizes the use of renewable or recycled source materials.
Sustainable Packaging Coalition – http://www.sustainablepackaging.org.
SVS – scavenger-verification system (from Cryovac) called the SVS system.
Symbol length – Total length of a bar code including the quiet zones preceding the start code and following the stop code.
Symbology – The system of representing data in a bar code.