Updated 13 March 2010
IBM Roll Number – An internal number tracking number assigned by RJRP used to track raw materials usage.
ICC – The International Colour Consortium. Established in 1993 by eight industry vendors for the purpose of creating, promoting and encouraging the standardization and evolution of an open, vendor-neutral, cross-platform colour management system architecture and components.
ICC Profile – A file that describes how a particular device (e.g., monitor, scanner, and printer, proofer) reproduces colour (i.e., its specific colour space).
Icicles – Strings of dried ink hanging around cylinder area including applicator, bafflers, etc.
I.D. – Abbreviation for the Inside Diameter.
Identification in plastics – There are seven classes of plastics used in packaging applications. Types 1 (PET), 2 (HDPE), Type 3 (PVC), Type 4 (LDPE), Type 5 (polypropylene), Type 6 (polystyrene), Type 7 is the catch-all “other” class, and some type 7 plastics, such as polycarbonate (sometimes identified with the letters “PC” near the recycling symbol) and epoxy resins, are made from bisphenol A monomer. When such plastics are exposed to hot liquids, bisphenol A leaches out 55 times faster than it does. Types 1 (PET), 2 (HDPE), under normal conditions, at up to 32 ng/hour. Type 3 (PVC) can also contain bisphenol A as antioxidant in plasticizers. 4 (LDPE), 5 (polypropylene), and 6 (polystyrene) do not use bisphenol A during polymerization or package forming. Some type 7 plastics may leach bisphenol A.
Illuminant – Mathematical description of the relative spectral power distribution of a real or imaginary light source: i.e., the relative energy emitted by a source at each wavelength in its emission spectrum. Often used synonymously with “light source” or “lamp,” though such usage is not recommended.
Illuminant A (CIE) – CIE Standard Illuminant for incandescent illumination, yellow-orange in colour, with a correlated colour temperature of 2856°K. It is defined in the wavelength range of 380 to 770nm.
Illuminant C (CIE) – CIE Standard Illuminant for tungsten illumination that simulates average daylight, bluish in colour, with a correlated colour temperature of 6774°K.
Illuminant D (CIE) – Daylight illuminants, defined from 300 to 830nm (the UV portion 300 to 380nm being necessary to correctly describe colours that contain fluorescent dyes or pigments). They are designated as D, with a subscript to describe the correlated colour temperature; D65 is the most commonly used, having a correlated colour temperature of 6504°K, close to that of illuminant C. They are based on actual measurements of the spectral distribution of daylight.
Illuminants F (CIE) – CIE Standard Illuminant for fluorescent illumination. F2 represents a cool white fluorescent lamp (4200°K), F7 represents a broad-band daylight fluorescent lamp (6500°K), and F11 represents a narrow-band white fluorescent lamp (4000°K).
Illuminated bottles –
Image – The computerized representation of a picture or graphic.
Image Area – The actual area on the printed matter that is not restricted to ink coverage.
Image Carrier – Any plate, form, cylinder or other surface that contains an image, receives ink and transfers it to another surface, i.e., gravure cylinders, offset plates and letterpress stereotypes.
Image Resolution – The fineness or coarseness of an image as it was digitized, measured as dots-per-inch (DPI).
Imagesetter – A high-resolution imaging device that prints type and graphics directly to plate-ready film.
Imine – Organic compounds combining a non-acid radical with the NH radical.
IML – see in-mould-labelling
Imposition – Laying out pages in a press form so that they will be in the correct order after the printed sheet is folded.
Impregnation – The absorption of an impregnating agent into paper; in pulping, wood chips are impregnated with cooking liquor; timber is impregnated with preservative.
Impression – (1) Referring to an ink colour, one impression equals one press sheet passing once through a printing unit. (2) Referring to speed of a press, one impression equals one press sheet passing once through the press. (3) Transferring an image to a substrate from a printing plate, blanket or cylinder by one of the printing processes. It may be a single colour design or one in a series of multi-colour patterns.
Impression Cylinder/Impression Roller – (1) A friction-driven, rubber-covered metal cylinder that squeezes the substrate against an inked, engraved cylinder on a gravure press. (2) Cylinder on a press that pushes paper against the plate or blanket, thus forming the image. Also called impression roller.
Imprint – (1) The trade mark or legend reproduced on a carton during the process of printing to identify the manufacturer. (2) The subsequent printing of additional identifying information on a previously printed carton blank or film, such as stock retail boxes or labels.
Impulse Sealer – also known as a heat sealer or a plastic bag sealer. These units use an electrical current passed through a Ni-Chrome wire heating element to seal bags and tubing. Can be used on many plastic materials to create strong permanent welds. The heat is applied for a pre-set period set on a timer dial and when not in use no heat is applied.
Incineration – Also known as combustion, incineration is a controlled burning process to reduce waste volume. In addition to reducing volume, incineration can convert water into steam to fuel heating systems or generate electricity. Incineration facilities can also remove materials for recycling. (http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/landfill/sw_combst.htm)
Indexed Colour Image – A single-channel image, with 8 bits of colour information per pixel. The index is a colour look-up table containing up to 256 colours.
Indicia – Postal information place on a printed product.
Industrial Laminates – Sheets, rods, tubes and other forms, using papers or fabrics (woven or other) as bases and thermosetting resins as binder materials.
Industrial papers – Often plastic-coated or laminated papers used for industrial packaging and insulation purposes.
Inhibitor – A substance added to the furnish, coating or laminate of boxboard to retard or prevent deterioration of a carton or its contents by chemical reaction.
Injection blowmoulding – A two-stage, plastic bottling process. First, a preform (or parison) is injection moulded, forming the bottle finish. Then, the preform is transferred to a blowmould, where the bottle takes its ultimate shape.
Inert – In chemistry, the term inert is used to describe something that is not chemically active (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inert) or has only a limited ability to react chemically; chemically inactive; an indifferent chemical in a reaction.
Inert Anode – An anode that is insoluble in the electrolyte under the conditions prevailing in the electrolysis.
Infrared Drying – Drying of printing inks by the use of infrared radiation.
Inhibitor – A substance used to reduce the rate of a chemical or electrochemical reaction, such as those used to limit corrosion or pickling.
Injection Blow Moulding – A two-stage process where a pre-form or parison is injection moulded. The bottle finish is formed at this time. The pre-form is then transferred to a blow mould where the bottle takes its final shape.
Injection Moulding – A moulding procedure whereby a heat-softened plastic material is forced from a cylinder into a relatively cool cavity which gives the article the desired shape.
Injection Moulds – A mould into which a plastic material is introduced from an exterior heating cylinder.
Ink Fountain – Reservoir, on a printing press, that holds ink.
Ink Holdout – A paper’s ability to resist penetration of ink components beneath its surface.
Ink Jet Printing – Method of printing by spraying droplets of ink through computer-controlled nozzles. Also called jet printing.
Ink Voids – Areas in the printed surface that exhibit insufficient ink coverage. May also appear as a dark swirl in the printed surface. Also known as Starvation.
In-mould labeling (IML) – IML technology consists in decorating bottles, containers and other plastic parts directly in the forming mould (blow or injection moulding). The label is produced on a plastic film, and the availability of different materials allows the production of mono-component labelled containers or decorated plastic parts which are totally recyclable.
IML labelling excludes the labelling machine which means that two traditionally separate processes are integrated in only one, eliminating a potential source of machine stops and increasing the efficiency of the entire production line.
IML guarantees perfect labelling results with no glue residues, no wrinkles, no blisters. The label can not be removed and is perfectly stretched on the container, like a painting in its frame. There also are transparent substrates available, with which the label and the container have a visual integration; that’s what’s called the “NO-LABEL-LOOK”.
Injection Moulded Polypropylene Reusable Retail Package (PP-RRP) – AVC has developed a new patented RRP, the PP-RRP, made from clear Injection Moulded PP with soft PP-printed overlay that can be printed up to 8 colours, which is sealed directly onto the package. The PP-RRP has an integrated locking mechanism to secure the package and eliminate the need for the current security tape. The PP-RRP will be a major improvement to traditional clamshell and blister packaging in look, functionality and price. Printing directly on the PP will completely eliminate the cross-contamination of the plastic and paper. This concept will position your company as one of the leaders in environmental concept packaging. The PP-RRP can also be made in any size or shape.
Injection Moulding – (AE molding) The process of converting plastic pellets by using heat and pressure to inject the molten material into a water-cooled mould, containing single or multiple cavities. Once in the mould, the plastic is cooled to a shape reflecting the cavity. The equipment can produce a number of products in the one injection.
Ink – A fluid or viscous substance consisting of pigments, dyes or other materials dispersed in a carrier or vehicle by means of which a printing press imparts the desired image on boxboard. Character of the ink varies according to the printing process and application.
Ink Jet Printing – A non-impact printing process in which a stream of electro-statically charged microscopic ink droplets is projected onto a substrate at high velocity from a pressurized system. The electrically controlled flow of droplets is wither intermittent or continuous.
Ink Receptivity – The degree of penetration of printing inks on the surface of boxboard.
Innovia Films –
Insect infestation (food) –
Insert – A piece of paperboard which is not an integral part of a carton but is used in connection with one carton to perform a special function in separating, holding, or protecting the contents in position as a block, base, cushion, compartment or partition. Such inserts may serve as platforms, steps or frames for displaying the products within a carton.
Inside printing (canister) –
Instant Cool Can –
In-store billboard –
Insulating label –
Insulation board – A bulky, flexible paperboard used in buildings; usually coated kraft paper.
Insulation paper – An example is the cable paper used for insulating electrical conductors.
Intaglio – (1) Any form of printing in which the image areas are engraved or etched below the non-image areas on the printing plate or cylinder to provide ink-retaining reservoirs or well. Gravure is considered an intaglio printing process. (2) In papermaking, watermarking from countersunk depressions in the dandy roll to provide a whiter or denser design instead of increased transparency.
IntegraScore easy opening –
Integration – In an integrated pulp and paper mill, pulp is piped direct to the paper mill.
INTERCEPT(R) SPS –
Interfacial Tension – The difference in surface tension between two media.
Intermediate bulk container (IBC) –
Internal Bond – In paperboard, internal bond determines how well a piece of board resists de-lamination and picking in converting and printing processes. Different end uses may require different degrees of internal bond. For example, board used in heat set web printing must have a strong internal bond to resist delaminating from heat, but board which will be scored shouldn’t have too high an internal bond since it will resist delaminating at the score and resist the fold. Internal bond is measured as Z Direction Tensile (ZDT) – the resistance to pulling apart perpendicular to the sheet – or as Scott bond – resistance along the surface.
International Paper –
IR Reflective Additives – A group of additives which diffuse heat by reflecting the NIR energy.
IR Thermal – A group of additives which preserves heat by absorbing the NIR energy.
IR Transmitting – Allows the transmission of the NIR radiation to warm the environment underneath the plastic.
ISEGA – Industrie-, Studien- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft Admission is an external research department covering textiles, plastics, packaging, and environmental protection. ISEGA experts institute examine samples of packaging materials of paper, board, plastic, glass, tin and other metallic packaging materials to assess their suitability for use in the foodstuffs sector.
ISO 9000 – Established in 1987, ISO 9000 is an international set of five related standards for qualification of global quality assurance and quality control standards. Adherence is accomplished through an application process for ISO 9000 certification in company standards for inspecting production processes, updating records, maintaining equipment, training employees and handling customer relations.
ISO brightness – The brightness of paper and board measured at a wavelength of 457 nanometres under standard conditions.
ISO Certification – The International Organization for Standardization is a worldwide organization whose goal is to promote development of standardization to facilitate the international exchange of goods and services. ISO sets operational and quality control standards for businesses, including the ISO 9000 family of standards for quality systems, and the ISO 14000 family of standards for environmental management systems. ISO registration is accepted as a quality assurance benchmark by more than 90 countries around the world and is widely considered to be a marketing requirement for companies that conduct business globally, especially in the European Union. Established in 1987, ISO 9000 is an international set of five related standards for qualification of global quality assurance and quality control standards. Adherence is accomplished through an application process for ISO 9000 certification in company standards for inspecting production processes, updating records, maintaining equipment, training employees and handling customer relations. The ISO 9001 standard is for organizations whose business processes range all the way from design and development, to production, installation and servicing. ISO 9002 is for organizations that do not carry out design and development, so ISO 9002 does not include design control requirements; otherwise, the ISO 9001 and ISO 9002 requirements are identical. ISO 9003 is for organizations whose business processes do not include design control, process control, purchasing, or servicing, and which basically use inspection and testing to ensure that final products and services meet specified requirements.